Turning data into information.
One of the underlying principles of Linux is that every item should do one thing and one thing only and that we can easily join these items together. Think of it like a set of building blocks that we may put together however we like to build anything we want. In this section and the next we will learn about a few of these building blocks. Then in section 11 and 13 we'll look at how we may build them into more complex creations that can do useful work for us.
This page is quite long but it is mostly examples so it's not as scary as it looks.
A filter, in the context of the Linux command line, is a program that accepts textual data and then transforms it in a particular way. Filters are a way to take raw data, either produced by another program, or stored in a file, and manipulate it to be displayed in a way more suited to what we are after.
These filters often have various command line options that will modify their behaviour so it is always good to check out the man page for a filter to see what is available.
In the examples below we will be providing input to these programs by a file but in the section Piping and Redirection we'll see that we may provide input via other means that add a lot more power.
Let's dive in and introduce you to some of them. (remember, the examples here will only give you a taste of what is possible with these commands. Make sure you explore and use your creativity to see what else you may do with them.)
I won't go into too much detail on these. I think they are pretty self explanatory for the most part.
For each of the demonstrations below I will be using the following file as an example. This example file contains a list of content purely to make the examples a bit easier to understand but realise that they will work the same with absolutely any other textual data. Also, remember that the file is actually specified as a path and so you may use absolute and relative paths and also wildcards.
Head is a program that prints the first so many lines of it's input. By default it will print the first 10 lines but we may modify this with a command line argument.
head [-number of lines to print] [path]
Above was head's default behaviour. And below is specifying a set number of lines.
Tail is the opposite of head. Tail is a program that prints the last so many lines of it's input. By default it will print the last 10 lines but we may modify this with a command line argument.
tail [-number of lines to print] [path]
Above was tail's default behaviour. And below is specifying a set number of lines.
Sort will sort it's input, nice and simple. By default it will sort alphabetically but there are many options available to modify the sorting mechanism. Be sure to check out the manu page to see everything it may do.
sort [-options] [path]
nl stands for number lines and it does just that.
nl [-options] [path]
The basic formatting is ok but sometimes you are after something a little different. With a few command line options, nl is happy to oblige.
In the above example we have used 2 command line options. The first one -s specifies what should be printed after the number while the second one -w specifies how much padding to put before the numbers. For the first one we needed to include a space as part of what was printed. Because spaces are normally used as separator characters on the command line we needed a way of specifying that the space was part of our argument and not just inbetween arguments. We did that by including the argument surrounded by quotes.
wc stands for word count and it does just that (as well as characters and lines. By default it will give a count of all 3 but using command line options we may limit it to just what we are after.
wc [-options] [path]
Sometimes you just want one of these values. -l will give us lines only, -w will give us words and -m will give us characters. The example below gives us just a line count.
You may combine the command line arguments too. This example gives us both lines and words.
cut is a nice little program to use if your content is separated into fields (columns) and you only want certain fields.
cut [-options] [path]
In our sample file we have our data in 3 columns, the first is a name, the second is a fruit and the third an amount. Let's say we only wanted the first column.
cut defaults to using the TAB character as a separator to identify fields. In our file we have used a single space instead so we need to tell cut to use that instead. The separator character may be anything you like, for instance in a CSV file the separator is typically a comma ( , ). This is what the -d option does (we include the space within single quotes so it knows this is part of the argument). The -f option allows us to specify which field or fields we would like. If we wanted 2 or more fields then we separate them with a comma as below.
sed stands for Stream Editor and it effectively allows us to do a search and replace on our data. It is quite a powerful command but we will use it here in it's basic format.
sed <expression> [path]
A basic expression is of the following format:
The initial s stands for substitute and specifies the action to perform (there are others but for now we'll keep it simple). Then between the first and second slashes ( / ) we place what it is we are searching for. Then between the second and third slashes, what it is we wish to replace it with. The g at the end stands for global and is optional. If we omit it then it will only replace the first instance of search on each line. With the g option we will replace every instance of search that is on each line. Let's see an example. Say we ran out of oranges and wanted to instead give those people bananas.
It's important to note that sed does not identify words but strings of characters. Try running the example above yourself but replacing oranges with es and you'll see what I mean. The search term is also actually something called a regular expression which is a means to define a pattern (similar to wildcards we looked at in section 7). We'll learn more about regular expressions in the next section and you can use them to make sed even more powerful.
Also note that we included our expression within single quotes. We did this so that any characters included in it which may have a special meaning on the command line don't get interpreted and acted upon by the command line but instead get passed through to sed.
A common mistake is to forget the single quotes in which case you may get some strange behaviour from the command line. If this happens you may need to press CTRL+c to cancel the program and get back to the prompt.
uniq stands for unique and it's job is to remove duplicate lines from the data. One limitation however is that those lines must be adjacent (ie, one after the other). (sometimes this is not the case but we'll see one way we can fix this in Section 11 Piping and Redirection).
uniq [options] [path]
Let's say that our sample file was actually generated from another sales program but after a software update it had some buggy output.
No worries, we can easily fix that using uniq.
Linux guys are known for having a funny sense of humor. The program tac is actually cat in reverse. It was named this as it does the opposite of cat. Given data it will print the last line first, through to the first line.
Maybe our sample file is generated by writing each new order to the end of the file. As a result, the most recent orders are at the end of the file. We would like it the other way so that the most recent orders are always at the top.
Here are two other programs that are worth investigating if you want to take your knowledge even further. They are a quite powerfull but also more complex than the programs listed above.
Let's mangle some data.