Ok, so you want to learn how to use the Bash command line interface (terminal) on Unix/Linux. Or, it's part of a subject you're doing and so you're learning it because you have to. Either way, that's great. You're learning how to use a powerful tool that can make your life easier, and make you awesome (more so than I'm sure you already are) .
Want to learn Linux? Discover the Bash command line with this 13 part introduction including clear descriptions, ample examples, shortcuts and challenges.
The following pages are intended to give you a solid foundation in how to use the terminal, to get the computer to do useful work for you. You won't be a Unix guru at the end but you will be well on your way and armed with the right knowledge and skills to get you there if that's what you want (which you should because that will make you even more awesome).
At first, the Linux command line may seem daunting, complex and scary. It is actually quite simple and intuitive (once you understand what is going on that is), and once you work through the following sections you will understand what is going on.
Unix likes to take the approach of giving you a set of building blocks and then letting you put them together. This allows us to build things to suit our needs. With a bit of creativity and logical thinking, mixed in with an appreciation of how the blocks work, we can assemble tools to do virtually anything we want. The aim is to be lazy. Why should we do anything we can get the computer to do for us? The only reason I can think of is that you don't know how (but after working through these pages you will know how, so then there won't be a good reason).
A question that may have crossed your mind is "Why should I bother learning the command line? The Graphical User Interface is much easier and I can already do most of what I need there." To a certain extent you would be right, and by no means am I suggesting you should ditch the GUI. Some tasks are best suited to a GUI, word processing and video editing are great examples. At the same time, some tasks are more suited to the command line, data manipulation (reporting) and file management are some good examples. Some tasks will be just as easy in either environment. Think of the command line as another tool you can add to your belt. As always, pick the best tool for the job.
This Linux tutorial is divided into 13 sections. In general I recommend you work through them in order but if you've come here just to learn about a specific topic then feel free to just go straight to that one.
You can now jump into section 1 and get started or keep reading below to learn a little more about this tutorial.
The best way to learn the Linux command line is as a series of small, easy to manage steps. This tutorial is organised as such, with each section building upon the knowledge and skills learned in the previous sections. If you work through them in order, read them fully (there is a fair bit of material but it is important for getting a proper understanding) and practice on the command line as you go I believe you should have a fairly pleasant and smooth journey to Linux command line mastery.
99 times out of 100 when a student has troubles with this stuff I find that it is not that they are incapable but that they were lazy and didn't read the material fully.
Each section is structured in the following format:
Think of the activities not as tutorial questions (such as you may get in a class at school) but as direction on where to explore in the Linux environment to benefit from your new knowledge and skills. Treat the activities as a starting point for exploration. The further you take it, the better you will do. (How well you do and how far you go depends on how unlazy you are.)
This site is also designed to work well on tablets. I know a lot of students like to be at their computer doing work and have their tablet next to them with reference material on it. If that is you then this site works quite well with that set up. Another good approach is to have your browser on one half of the screen of your computer and a terminal on the other half so you can try out the examples as you go.
If you wish to succeed with the Linux command line then there are two things you need, Problem solving and Creative thinking. Here are some basic pointers to help you along the way.
So the general approach is:
Learn more about Problem Solving Skills.
Learning Linux is like riding a bike, you can only become proficient by actually doing. So before diving in, make sure you have access to a terminal. Luckily, you have several options available to you here.
Hi. My name is Ryan Chadwick and I have been teaching Linux to students for over 10 years now. It's something that I very much enjoy. In a world where we are increasingly hiding the complexities away from users (smart phones and tablets in particular), it is always satisfying to give that power back to people and allow them to do much more with their technology.
But teaching is only one of the things I do. I also develop and manage websites, and manage computer systems for a few different organisations. I feel that all my work is complementary and benefits from what I learn in the others. Combined, they give me a fairly good understanding of how technology works, and also an understanding of how people use technology, perceive technology, learn technology and work around technology.
This website is both for you, and for me. For you, it is a digital form of what I have been teaching my students over the years. For me, it is an opportunity to clarify and polish what I teach and how I deliver it. To these ends, if you have any feedback at all, be it to tell me you found a particular section confusing, or to let me know it was helpful, I would be more than happy to hear from you.
Drop us a message at
If you are a teacher, academic, manager or trainer and wish to use this material in your classes or training you are more than welcome to link to these pages and refer your students here or show them in your classes, but please do not just copy my material.
I've put a fair amount of time and effort into creating this resource so please be cool and do the right thing.
Unfortunately, in this crazy and litigous world we now live in, one has to keep themselves covered so here is my disclaimer.
To the best of my knowledge, the material contained within these pages is correct. I make no guarantees however. I also take no responsibility for any damage you may do based upon knowledge gained from here (even though the chances of doing so are relatively small at best). Please use common sense when using any of the knowledge and skills gained from using this material.